The war of Zijinguan
In 1449,the leader of theMongolian Wala division ,named yexian,led his troops to attack the ming Dynastyalong three routes.When the west route vanguards of the Wala army arrived atZijingguan(pass),they encounter tenacious resistance from the ming garrisontroops and could not getting across.So the Wala army adopted a plan of making afeint to the east and attacking in the west,by using the main force to confrontwith theMing troops in front of the frontier pass while at the same timesending some troops to go along the mountain trails and slip throughZijingling.They took a devious route to southern section of the pass,thenpulled down the side walls and entered into the pass.Later Yexian led histroops drove straighten to the capital city from Zijinguan.This battal wasknown as the “War of Zijingguan” in history
the Battle of Maling
In the middle of theWarring States period,the strength of the state of Wei,especially the militarystrength,was better than the state of Qi,In 341 B.C,the Wei army launched anattack against the state of Han which in turn asked Qi for help.King Xuanwangof Qi ordered Sun Bin,his military advisor,to send troops to rescue Han.Wei wasvery angry at Qi for its coming to rescue Han,so it decided to let Han slip byinstead deployed its forces marching toward Qi.The Qi army laid more than10,000 archers on both sides of the Maling Road in ambush.Sun Bin ordered hissoldiers to “shoot the arrows together as soon as seeing the fire at night”.SunBin also ordered to have “Pang Juan died under this tree” several big Chinesecharacters engraved on a tree in the deep gully.With all the arrangements inplace,the Qi army quietly waited the arrival of the Wei troops.When night fell,The Wei army leader Pang Juan led a large contingent of troops into the MalingRoad.He faintly saw a tree which seemed to be engraved with some characters,sohe ordered someone to light a torch to look at it.As soon as seeing thefirelight,the Qi archers discharged their arrows together and in the enddefeated the Wei army completely,destroying a total of more than 100,000 enemytroops.
the Battle of Juyongguanpass
Soon after the battle ofZijingguan,the chief of the Mongolian Wala tribe Yexian once again attempted toinvade the capital in a roundabout way.part of the army stormed the pass andmet with strong resistance from the Ming army.Taking advantage of the suddencold weather,Luo Tong,the commanding officer in charge of the defense,orderedhid soldiers to pour water onto the wall,so the wall would be iced up andbecame very slippery,making it impossible for the Wala troops to climb over.TheWala troops finally approached the pass wall by laying the bundled tree brancheson the ice,but were repulsed by the Ming army’s firearms.After making noheadway in their attack for a long time,the Wala troops became quite exhaustedand in the end they were utterly crushed retreating to the north.
the Great Battle ofGubeikouPass among the Liao,the Song and the Jin
In the history of china,TheSong Dynasty was a period of greatnational integration ,There were endless disputes among the liao,Song ,jin andWestern Xia regimes and the wars among them were closely related with Gubeikou.Theterrain around the Gubeikou Great wall area was perilous,and it was the onlypassageway that the north ethnic groups invaded the South Central Plains.Therefore it had always been the place of strategic importance.The regime ofliao established by the Qidan tribe invaded the Central Plains on severaloccasions through the Gubeikou pass and gradually achieved a strategicallydominant position to the Central Plains regime.The opening of the gateway tothe Great North China Plain made Song Dynasty almost lost all advantages fordefense.In 1120,the state of Jin ,established by the Nuzhen people,sent troopsand conquered Liao.After Liao was overthrown,Gubeikou was attributed to Songthe agreement signed between Jin and Song.However the contention was still goingon underneath.In 1125,the troops of Jin attacked Song from east and west atsame time and defeated Song completely at Gubeikou.Since then,Gubeikou hadbecome the hinterland of Jin.
the Battle of the Greatwall
In 1993,the Chinese armedforce carried out a series of battles,fighting against the japanese GuandongAmry’s offensive to the Shanghaiguan pass along the Great Wall area,known asthe “the Battle of the Great Wall”in history.
After the occupation of thethree northeast provinces,the Japanese army sent more than 70,000 troops readyto capture the Rehe and the Great Wall front line east of Gubeikou in orderto expand and consolidate the boundariesof the puppet Manchuria ,and then eating into north China.In January 1933,theJapanese aggressors crossed the Shanghaiguan pass ,invaded and attacked Rehe.Inearly March,the Japanese army captured Chengde and subsequently launched amassive attack to each of the strategic passes of the Great Wall.The Chinesearmy fought a bloody war and finally regained the Xifengkou and other positionsafter more than 80 days of strong resistance and stubborn defense against theJapanese army.Their victory had greatly inspired the confidence of the Chinese people all overthe country against the Japanese invasion and dealt a heavy blow the arrogantJapanese army of aggression.